Internet Technologies and Techniques

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Learning Diary

Day 1

Application layer

Top level of stack

(Application layer protocols, protocol = established agreed way of sharing info)


using telnet in terminal to connect to

Commands in terminal -

telnet 80


port 80, default port for HTTP connections. IMAP/POP, port 143

DNS = domain name server, basically a server that knows what name links to what ip address of the server.

For eg. to access, TLD = top level DNS which redirects to local .fi DNS which would send to aalto DNS so on...

Look up - ICANN,

Transport layer

TCP Transmission control protocol Checks for connections, if everything is ok, errors etc., it guarantees that the information that is requested, will be received in whole without drops etc. retransmits lost packages.

UDP user datagram protocol = gets the data as fast as possible, but no guarantees for drops or right order etc., no error correction.


Internet layer, handles routing of connections , independent of hardware.